br diagnostic tools are less than optimal
diagnostic tools are less than optimal and because SB 203580 cancer has a high rate of recurrence and long term following is a necessity, a better diagnostic device is necessary (Onile et al., 2017). Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo-A1) is the major protein part of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It is synthesized mostly in the liver and small digestive tract. Likewise aﬃrmed by several studies, Apo-A1 suppresses inflammation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis (Mangaraj et al., 2016). Studies have discovered that Apo-A1 is a potential biomarker for nu-merous types of cancer including breast furthermore pancreatic carci-nomas (Cine et al., 2014). It is usually thought that the role of the Apo-A1 molecule over malignancy pathophysiology may be connected with the phospholipid binding ability. Lysophospholipids, in particular, have been demonstrated to play a basic role in the improvement for malig-nancy and what's more bring been accounted to be major biomarkers for cancerous diseases (Lv et al., 2011). Apolipoprotein A2 (Apo-A2) is the second major protein of the HDL-C particles and comprises about
Abbreviations: Apo-A1, Apolipoprotein A-1; Apo-A2, Apolipoprotein A2; HDL, high density lipoprotein; AUC, Area under the curve; EDTA, ethylenediaminete-traacetic acid; r, correlation coeﬃcient; RIPA, recombinant immunoblot assay; ROC curves, Receiver operating characteristics curves; TBS, tris-buﬀered saline; μg, micro gram; μl, microliter; μM, micromolar; mM, millimolar; ng, nano gram; OR, odds ratio; p, p. value; PVDF, polyvinylidenedifluoride; SD, standard deviation; SPSS, statistical package for the social sciences
E-mail address: email@example.com (D.E.-S. Ellakwa).
20% of the total HDL-C protein content. Additionally, Apo-A2 has been related to various types of cancer in diﬀerent clinical studies (Bandarian et al., 2016). In the present study, blood and urine levels of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2, as were assessed by western blot analysis to measure expres-sion levels of the proteins and genes. The expression of Apo-A1 and Apo-A2 levels with tumor stage and grade was also assessed.
2. Subjects and methods
2.1. Study population
Subjects of the present study were selected from Kasr El-Ainy Hospital, Urology Department Cairo University, Egypt and diagnosed as bladder cancer by histopathological examination of biopsy cystoscopy samples. Laboratory work was conducted in Unit of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. The present study was directed as stated by those professional ethics of declaration of Helsinki. Every one of subjects of the present study has signed written informed consents which were aﬃrmed by the Ethics Committee of Cairo University.
Groups of the study: Group I: Involved 50 patients with urinary bladder carcinoma diagnosed by pathological examination of cysto-scopy biopsy tissue samples. Group II: Involved 50 patients with cystitis (benign condition). Group III: Involved 50 healthy normal subjects. Inclusion criteria include: age 48–65 years, bladder biopsy showing histological evidence of bladder cancer, patients not receiving any medications, surgery or radiological interventions, no associated chronic diseases or their complications or any other type of tumors. Exclusion criteria include: The presences of any chronic systemic illness were excluded from this study such as patients with chronic kidney, liver, cardiac diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, autoimmune disease, pregnant females, severe obesity or patients receiving any medications.
2.2. Sample collection and processing
Whole blood samples on ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) were collected and divided into two parts; 3 mL for separation of the mononuclear cell layer by Ficoll Paque (Munich, Germany) and 3 mL for serum separation. Blood and serum samples were stored at −80 °C till the time of laboratory assays.