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  • br Hardystonite br Magnetite br Hyperthermia increasing temperature of


    Hyperthermia—increasing temperature of cancerous tissue for a short period of time—is considered as an ef-fective treatment for various cancer types such as malignant bone tumors. Superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic particles have been studied for their hyperthermic properties in treating various types of cancers. The activation of magnetic nanoparticles by an alternating magnetic field is currently being explored as a technique for targeted therapeutic heating of different tumors and is being studied as an adjuvant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In the case of bone cancers, to increase the efficiency Ruxolitinib of treatment in the hyperthermia therapy, employed materials should support bone regeneration as well. Magnetite is one of the most attractive magnetic nanoceramics used in hyperthermia application. However, biocompatibility and bioactivity of this material have raised questions. There is a high demand for extremely efficient hyperthermia materials which are equally biocompatible to non-tumor Ruxolitinib and tissues. We report the development of a biocompatible and bioactive material with desirable magnetic properties that show excellent hyperthermia properties and can be used for destruction of the cancerous tissue in addition to supporting tissue regeneration for treatment of bone tumors. In the current study, iron (Fe3+)-containing HT nanostructured material was prepared, and its bio-compatibility, bioactivity, and hyperthermia abilities were studied. The developed materials showed effective hyperthermic properties with increased biocompatibility as compared to magnetite.
    1. Introduction
    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have gained a considerable atten-tion because of their high applications in biomedical engineering. They can be employed for treatment of cancers, improvement in performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), drug delivery, and controlled drug release [1–6]. The application of MNPs in hyperthermia as a method for the elevation of temperature in the diseased tissue for short period of time has broadened over time and is now used as a modality for the treatment of a wide range of cancerous tumors. It is important to note that the metabolism of cancer cells is comparatively higher than a normal tissue and as such that makes these cells more responsive to any change in their local surrounding temperature and pH [7]. It has been reported that cancer cells at temperatures in the range of 41–45 °C are
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    destroyed while healthy cells can still survive at these temperatures [8]. Accumulation of MNPs in a tumor tissue followed by exposing to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) results in generating heat within the tumor. Apart from a higher sensitivity of the cancerous tissue to the changes in local temperature, the highly heterogeneous vasculature confines the high temperature rise within the tumor tissue, leading to cell death due to hyperthermia. Given these reasons, hyperthermia in-duced cell death of cancerous tissue is receiving a great deal of interest for the treatment of malignant tumors such as bone tumors without any major adverse side effects [8,9].
    With the highest rate of mortality among young patients, treatment of bone cancer employing a harmless treatment will be significantly imperative [10]. Together with chemotherapy, the general treatment process for bone cancer consists of resection of the cancerous bone
    tissue followed by filling the defect with cement to provide mechanical strength and at the same time minimize the growth of remaining cancer cells [11]. In recent times, ceramic scaffolds have emerged as the ma-terial of choice to support osteogeneration after bone tumor resection surgeries [12]. One downside of such materials has, however, been that these materials have not performed well in terms of successful cancer remission. Thus, engineering a scaffold with an ability to support cell ingrowth and bone regeneration accompanied by a successful cancer remission will significantly increase the efficiency of hyperthermia therapy for bone cancers. Scaffolds incorporated with MNPs with re-generative properties can be considered as a high potential candidate for achieving this aim.