Archives

  • 2022-09
  • 2022-08
  • 2022-07
  • 2022-06
  • 2022-05
  • 2022-04
  • 2020-08
  • 2020-07
  • 2018-07
  • br Corresponding authors E mail

    2022-09-01


    Corresponding authors. E-mail addresses: natercia@ff.up.pt (N. Teixeira), mmoumni02@yahoo.fr (M. Moumni). 1 Both authors contributed equally to this work.
    (Augusto, Correia-da-Silva, Rodrigues, Teixeira, & Amaral, 2018; Sobral et al., 2016). Therefore, it is important to find new therapeutic drugs or bioactive Okadaic acid Okadaic acid that may improve breast cancer treatment. In re-cent decades, modern research in oncology has confirmed the ther-apeutic virtues of natural products, such as essential oils (EOs) from medicinal plants (Elshafie & Camele, 2017; Gautam, Mantha, & Mittal, 2014; Jayaprakasha, Murthy, Uckoo, & Patil, 2013).
    J. oxycedrus L. is a widespread tree in the Mediterranean region, including Morocco and Portugal, and is known by the names of “prickly juniper, juniper cade, cada and red-berry juniper” (Taviano et al., 2013). It is a medicinal plant that is a source of several food ingredients and is often used by European gastronomy (Loizzo et al., 2007). The fruits (berries) of J. oxycedrus L. are commonly used as flavoring spices especially for different types of meat dishes. Moreover, it is known that berries from this plant are also used in gin due to its distinct flavor (Loizzo et al., 2007). In addition, traditional medicine, in Morocco, has used some extracts of J. oxycedrus L for medicinal purposes. For ex-ample, cade oil, which is an aromatic distilled oil prepared from J. oxycedrus L. plant, is used not only in soaps, creams and lotions, due to its dermatologic properties, but also in folk medicine due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties (Loizzo et al., 2007; Skalli, Chebat, Badrane, & Bencheikh, 2013; Zhang, Lin, & Chan, 2015). In fact, this oil has been used by different populations as part of anti-cancer therapy (Duke, 2007; Minirth, Krusz, Horewell, & Neal, 2005). Also, some studies showed that certain species of Juniperus can be a potential source of molecules with anti-cancer activity (Kang et al., 2012; Kusari, Zühlke, & Spiteller, 2011; Venditti et al., 2018; Yun, Hyun, Park, Kim, & Kwon, 2012). Widdrol, a sesquiterpene in the EOs of some Juniperus species, was described as one of the potential inducers of apoptosis in cervical and colon cancer cells (Kang et al., 2012; Yun et al., 2012). Despite this, the anti-cancer efficacy of this Moroccan species has not been explored on breast cancer.
    Thus, the use and reputation of J. oxycedrus L. extracts that are traditionally prepared to treat different illnesses and diseases, like cancer, motivated us to study not only the phytochemical composition of leaves and fruits oils of this plant but also their potential anti-cancer properties. For this purpose, it was used the combination of gas chro-matography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis with distinct proto-cols of solid-phase microextraction (SPME), to determine the phyto-chemical composition of oils from fruits and leaves of J. oxycedrus L. In addition, the potential anti-cancer activities of these EOs were eval-uated in vitro, using an ER+ aromatase-overexpressing breast cancer cell line (MCF-7aro), which is a good in vitro cell model to study ER+ breast cancer (Amaral et al., 2012; Itoh et al., 2005).
    2. Material and methods
    2.1. Plant material and extraction procedure
    J. oxycedrus L. plant was collected from area of ALHARCH (Tighassaline-Khénifra-Meknes-Tafilalt Region, coordinates 32°46′56″ North, 5°39′06″ West, altitude + 906 m, Morocco) in December-January 2016–2017. This species was authenticated by the Plant Ecology Laboratory in Meknes and by the Scientific Institute of Rabat, Morocco. A plant voucher sample (No 05/FSM) was deposited in the Laboratory of Prof. Moumni at the Sciences Faculty, University of Moulay Ismail, Morocco. Air-dried leaves and fruits of J. oxycedrus L. were submitted to Clevenger hydro-distillation extraction with distilled water (4 h) to obtain EOs. The obtained extracts were protected from the light and stored at −20 °C until being tested.